Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS):Used to determine the severity of opioid withdrawal.
Codeine:Thepain-relieving sedative agentcontained in opium.
Codependence:A family member’s or friend’s suffering that is the result of the side effects of one’s addiction; it occurs when one takes responsibility for another’s actions and helps that person avoid facing his or her problems directly to maintain the relationship.
Cold Turkey:Abruptly quitting a drug by choice in order to try to quit long-term.
Compulsion:A physical behaviour one repeats involuntarily that can be harmful (e.g., addiction).
Conditioning:A behavioural change that results from an association between events.
Craving:A powerful and strong desire/urge for a substance; a symptom of the abnormal brain adaptions that result from addiction.
Crisis Intervention:The action taken when one’s usual coping resources pose a threat to individual or family functioning.
Cross-Dependence:The ability of one drug to prevent the withdrawal symptoms of one’s physical dependence on another.
Cross-Tolerance:Occurs when one’stolerance for one drug results in their lessened response to another.
D.O.C.:This stands for drug of choice.
Denial:One’s failure to either admit or realise his or her addiction or to recognise and accept the harm it can cause.
Depressants:Sedatives that act on the CNS (e.g. to treat anxiety, high blood pressure, tension, etc.).
Depression:One of the most frequent types of distress resulting from addiction; an ongoing state of sadness involving the inability to concentrate, inactivity, etc.
Detoxification (Detox):Theprocess of the body ridding itselfof a toxic substance (e.g. a drug).
Disease Model:A theory of alcoholism that considers the addiction a disease rather than a social or psychological issue.
Disease:A condition featuring medically significant symptoms that often have a known cause.
Doctor Shopping:Occurs when a patient requests care simultaneously from multiple physicians without their knowledge in order to receive higher amounts of medications.
Dopamine:A chemical produced naturally by the body; functions in the brain as a neurotransmitter to provide feelings of well-being.
Downers:Another name for depressants; these drugs can cause low moods (e.g. alcohol, barbiturates, tranquilizers, etc.).
Drug Misuse:One’s use of a drug not specifically recommended or prescribed when there are more practical alternatives; when drug use puts a user or others in danger.
Drug Tolerance:A progressive state of decreased responsiveness to a drug.
DSM-IV:The handbook most often used for diagnosing mental disorders.
Dual-Diagnosis:Mental patients ‘ condition when they are also addicted to any mind-altering drug.
DUI:Stands for (driving under influence) (of alcohol or another illicit substance that impairs one’s ability to drive).
DWI:Stands for (driving while intoxicated).
Dysphoria:The opposite of euphoria.
Dysynergy:An addiction’s tendency to cause another (e.g. gateway drugs); an addicted person’s tendency to combine substances.
Enabling:Helping an addicted person do things they can or should be doing for themselves; causes disease progression.
Endogenous Opioid:The opioids that the body naturally produces in order to help us tolerate pain.
Endorphins:Opium-like substances produced by the brain; natural painkillers.
Ethanol:The beverage type (ethyl) of alcohol.
Euphoria:A pleasurable state of altered consciousness; one reason for the preference of one addictive behaviour or substance over another.
Relapse:Symptom recurrence after a period of sobriety or drug use cessation.
Remission:A symptom-free period.
Reversed Tolerance:When a lower dose of a drug produces the same desired or observed effect that previously resulted only with higher dosages.
Screening:Measurement tool for the extent of one’s addiction (e.g., self-completion questionnaire/life-history assessment).
Self-Help Group:Group of individuals dealing with similar issues that meets to support each other and share helpful information (e.g. AA).
Side Effects:Secondary effects of a drug; these are usually undesirable.
Societal Denial:Society’s denial of the historical value of drug-induced pleasure and euphoria.
Steroids:Agroup of cyclic, solid unsaturated alcohols(e.g. cholesterol).
Stimulant:Drugs that act on the CNS, resulting in alertness, excitation, and wakefulness.
Straight-Edge:A term for people who don ‘t use drugs.
Sublingual:Drugs that enter the blood through the membranes under the tongue.
Substance Abuse (Chemical Dependence):A maladaptive pattern of recurrent substance use that leads to impairment or distress that is clinically significant.
Substance Dependence: An adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal symptoms.
Synergism:The greater effect that results when one takes more than one drug simultaneously.
Synthetic:Not natural occurring.
Talc:Dangerous substance used in manufacturing pharmaceuticals.
Therapeutic Community:A setting where people with similar issues can meet to support each other’s recovery.
Therapeutic Dependence:Patients ‘ tendency to demonstrate drug-seeking behaviours because they fear withdrawal symptoms.
Titration:The gradual adjustment of the amount of a drug.
Tolerance:Condition in which one must increase their use of a drug for it to have the same effect.
Toxicity:A degree of poisonous.
Tranquillisers:A type of drug that can help relieve the symptoms of severe psychosis.
Trigger:Anything that results in psychological and then physical relapse.
Ups or Uppers:Drugs that produce a euphoric effect (e.g. stimulants, amphetamines).
Urge-Peak Cycle:Ongoing urge-peaks, usually followed by relapse.
Urge-Peak:A sudden, unpredictable increase in addiction cravings; they usually involve temporary mental unawareness (e.g. not realising the amount of drinks one has had).
Urges:Less powerful desires than cravings; can be suppressed by willpower.
User:Outdated term used to describe one who misusesalcohol or drugs.
Withdrawal Symptoms:Severe and excruciating physical and emotional symptoms that generally occur between 4 to 72 hours after opiate withdrawal (e.g., watery eyes, yawning, loss of appetite, panic, insomnia, vomiting, shaking, irritability, jitters, etc.).
Withdrawal Syndrome:Combined reactions or behaviours that result from the abrupt cessation of a drug one is dependent on.
Withdrawal:The abrupt decrease in or removal of one’s regular dosage of a psychoactive substance.