Addiction is a disease in which a person is unable to stop using a substance or engaging in a specific behavior, despite its harmful consequences. Sometimes substance use begins due to high-stress levels at home or work, low self-esteem, issues concerning relationships, issues related to medical problems, or for the sake of experimentation. A person’s circle of family and friends, the community where they reside, and their upbringing can all have a significant impact on their addiction and recovery as well.
Addiction does not only refer to dependence on the most commonly used legal and illegal drugs and substances, such as cocaine, heroin, club drugs like ecstasy (MDMA), alcohol, amphetamines, methamphetamines, cigarettes and chewing tobacco, to name a few.
There are also behavioral addictions that are comprised of the inability to stop engaging in certain behaviors. These can include any of the following: gambling, binge eating, sex addiction, porn addiction, compulsive shopping, using the internet and social media compulsively, and working compulsively.
Addiction is a psychological as well as physical inability to stop consuming a chemical or drug, or a failure to refrain from an activity or a particular substance, in spite of being aware of the psychological and physical harm that it’s causing.
The brand-name medicine TARGINIQ ER is a combination product that consists of oxycodone hydrochloride, which is an opioid agonist, and naloxone hydrochloride, which is an opioid antagonist.
Targiniq ER (ER means Extended-Release) breaks down slowly in your body, thereby providing lengthy pain relief. Targiniq is a new form of OxyContin that is made exclusively by Purdue Pharma, the same company that makes OxyContin.
Targiniq ER is a drug that is recommended specifically for the control and management of severe pain—severe enough to require daily monitoring, around-the-clock, long-term opioid treatment—and for which alternative treatment options are inadequate. It’s not indicated for use on an as-needed (p.r.n.) basis like an analgesic. Because of the risk for addiction and abuse, and due to the greater risk of overdose and death associated with extended-release opioid formulations, doctors reserve Targiniq ER for use with patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate.
There is a difference between addiction and misuse. The word misuse refers to the incorrect, excessive, or non-therapeutic use of mood and mind-altering substances.
However, not everybody who misuses a substance has an addiction. Addiction is a strong compulsion and could be defined as a long-standing inability to reduce or stop the intake of a substance. An individual who drinks alcohol heavily on a night out may experience the blissful, psychological effects of the drink as well as the harmful effects of the substance.
Nevertheless, this alone does not qualify as an addiction until the person feels the need to consume a particular amount of alcohol regularly, when alone, or at times of day when the alcohol will more than likely impair the regular activities. A person with an addiction will not only continue to misuse the substance, but over time, will become entirely dependent on it, in spite of the harmful effects.
Someone who has not yet developed an addiction could be turned off to further continued use by the harmful side effects caused by substance abuse. For example, if one wakes up with a hangover after drinking too much alcohol the previous night, or experiences nausea, vomiting, or dizziness on the next day after the consumption of alcohol, it may prevent that person from drinking that amount anytime soon.
The primary indications or symptoms of addiction are:
To uncontrollably engage in harmful levels of habit-forming behavior
To neglect or lose interest in activities that do not involve harmful substances or behavior
Relationship issues within the family, which could result in lashing out at those who identify the person’s addiction
An inability to completely stop using a drug, even though they know it may cause health hazards or personal problems, or issues with employment or relationships
Hiding substances or engaging in secrecy surrounding the behvior; for example, refusing to explain the occurrence of injuries sustained while under the influence of alcohol
Profound and distinct changes in appearance and behaviors, including becoming unhygienic
Taking increased risks in order to engage in the behavior or to indulge in dangerous activities while under the influence
TARGINIQ™ ER exposes patients and other users to the risks of opioid addiction, abuse, and misuse, which could lead to overdose and death. Thus, it’s imperative to assess each patient’s risk by reviewing their medical history, prior to prescribing TARGINIQ ER, and also to check in with patients regularly watching for the development of these behaviors and conditions.
Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression
One has to be monitored for respiratory depression, especially when first administering TARGINIQ ER or following a dose increase. Patients need to swallow TARGINIQ ER tablets whole; crushing, chewing, or dissolving TARGINIQ ER tablets can cause a rapid release and absorption of a potentially fatal dose of oxycodone.
TARGINIQ ER should be kept out of reach of anyone but the patient or their caregiver, with particular care taken to keep this medicine out of reach of childre. Accidental ingestion can easily result in a fatal overdose of oxycodone.
Dosage and Administration
TARGINIQ ER is available in these dosages:
10 mg/5 mg
20 mg/10 mg
40 mg/20 mg tablets for oral (by mouth) administration
TARGINIQ ER should only be prescribed by registered healthcare professionals or healthcare practitioners who are knowledgeable about and have an understanding of the use of potent opioids for the management of chronic pain.
Each of these dosages has been given a distinct color to make it easily recognizable based on its dosage.
The 10 mg/5 mg extended-release (ER) tablets are white.
The 20 mg/10 mg extended-release (ER) tablets are pink.
The 40 mg/20 mg extended-release (ER) tablets are yellow.
The starting dosage for patients who are intolerant to opioid is generally 10 mg/5 mg to be taken orally, every 12 hours.
The use of higher starting doses in patients who are opioid intolerant may cause fatal respiratory depression.
This drug will cause opioid withdrawal if discontinued abruptly.
The severity and duration of the withdrawal are influenced by the level of dependency on the substance and a few other factors, which are:
Length of time or duration involved abusing the substance
Type of substance that is abused
Mode or method of abuse (e.g., snorting, smoking, injecting, or swallowing)
Amount or quantity that is taken each time
Family history and genetic makeup of the individual
Medical and mental health factors involved
Mentioned below are two lists of Targiniq ER withdrawal symptoms.
There are four mental and emotional withdrawal symptoms:
Anxiety: which could result in panic attacks, restlessness, and irritability.
Depression: social isolation, lack of enjoyment or entertainment, feeling fatigued, poor appetite.
Sleep disorders: insomnia, difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep throughout the night.
Cognitive impairment: poor concentration and poor memory.
There are six physical withdrawal symptoms for Targiniq ER:
Head: headaches, migraines, and dizziness.
Chest: chest tightness, chest congestion and difficulty breathing.
Heart: racing heart or increased heartbeats or increased pulse rate, irregular heart rate and rhythm, skipped beats and palpitations.
GI discomfort: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, indigestion, and stomachache.
Other Drugs Which Cause Dangerous Withdrawal Symptoms
The two main substances that produce the most dangerous physical withdrawal symptoms are alcohol and tranquilizers such as benzodiazepines. Suddenly stopping alcohol or tranquilizers could lead to health issues like seizures, strokes, palpitations, or even heart attacks in some patients, especially those with a history of heart-related diseases. Under proper medical guidance and supervision, detox could thus minimize your withdrawal symptoms and also reduce the risk of such dangerous complications. Some dangerous symptoms of alcohol and tranquilizer withdrawal are hallucinations and delirium tremens (DTs), involving tremors, anxiety, and disorientation.
Withdrawal from opioids such as heroin and OxyContin can be extremely uncomfortable, and can in certain cases be life-threatening.
The first stage of withdrawal is known as the acute stage, which under normal conditions lasts only for a few weeks. Then comes the second stage of withdrawal, the post-acute stage, during which one could have few physical symptoms, but more emotional and psychological withdrawal symptoms.
Drug and Alcohol Addiction Treatment
If someone is going through drug or alcohol withdrawal, there is always hope and treatment available. Many people have sought help from addiction treatment and it has changed their lives. There are many medical and non-medical withdrawal units and detox programs available. There are also many options, including self-help groups, and outpatient or inpatient addiction rehabilitation centers.
Admitting you have a problem is the first step toward recovery. Ask yourself, “Do I have an addiction?” Then take the next step and change your life for the better. Ask for help, learn addiction recovery skills, and develop relapse prevention skills so that you don’t have to continue to suffer.
How to recognize an Addiction Problem
In accordance with the ASAM (American Society of Addiction Medicine,) no matter what type of addiction it is, it’s very important to recognize the warnings on time and seek timely help, to not further exacerbate the current situation.
How does one identify the initial stages of Targiniq ER or other opioid addiction?
Some of the initial/early stages may include:
Experimentation / recreational use.
A family history of addiction.
Anxiety, pain, or in exhaustion, which could lead to being drawn to either a particular substance or activity in order to seek relief.
In order to get over or escape from the current stressful situation, one opts to seek out situations in which the substances or the activities are present.
Episodes of excessive or overindulgence in a substance or an activity; in other words, episodes of binging.
Loss of control of oneself with little or no feeling of regret, repentance, or guilt.
Addiction left untreated or ignored during initial stages could further develop into a debilitating habit.